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八年级英语上期末复习:动词时态专题

来源:无锡中考网整理        2013-03-02 18:04:18

标签:八年级英语 期末考试 综合复习说两句

一、现在完成时

  (一)现在完成时的用法

  1. 表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,重点强调对现在造成的结果或影响。此种用法中的动词一般为终止性动词(也称非延续性动词),常与just, ever, never, yet, already, before等副词连用。

  例如:

  I have already seen the film.

  我已经看过那部电影了。  (说明已知道内容,或不想再看了)

  She has just closed the door.

  她刚把门关上。  (说明门现在是关着的)

  先将几个副词的用法说明如下:

  1) already的意思是"已经"。通常用于肯定句中,可放在助动词have/has之后,也可放在句末。在表示惊讶等的疑问句中也可用already。

  例如:

  Have you seen the film already?

  你真的看过这部电影吗?

  2) yet用于疑问句的意思是"已经",用在否定句的意思是"还",常位于句末。

  just的意思是"刚刚",表示动作刚刚完成,用于现在完成时,位于助动词have/has之后。 要注意与just now的区别:just now的意思是"刚才",用于一般过去时。

  例如:

  The train has just left here.

  火车刚刚离开这儿。

  The train left here just now.

  火车刚才离开这儿。

  3) ever 的意思是"曾经",多用于疑问句中,一般位于过去分词之前。

  例如:

  Have you ever seen him?

  你曾经见过他吗?

  never 的意思是"从来没有",常用在助动词之后。

  例如:

  I have never heard of him.

  我从来没有听说过他。

  before 的意思是"从前",泛指过去不确定的某个时间,常位于句末。

  例如:

  I haven't eaten Sichuan food before.

  我以前从未吃过四川菜。

  2. 表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态,甚至还可能继续下去,常与for或since引导的时间状语连用。

  此用法中的动词必须是延续性动词,如live, study, work, be, wait, know, stay等。for为介词,后面要接"一段时间"。since用作介词时,后面接"时间点"; since用作连词时,后面接"从句"(从句谓语动词用一般过去时)。

  例如:

  I have known Jim for two years.

  我认识吉姆两年了。

  They have lived there since1995.

  从1995年以来他们就住在那儿。

  Uncle Wang has worked in the factory since he came here in 1998.

  王叔叔自从他1998年来这儿就在这个工厂工作。

  注:延续性动词与终止性动词的运用

  延续性动词可以和表示一段时间的状语连用。终止性动词所表示的是短暂的动作,如borrow, lend, buy, come, go, put, take, open, leave, give, die, finish, become等,不能和表示一段时间的状语连用,一般要改为能够表示延续状态的词或短语。如:

  buy-have     borrow/lend-keep

  die-be dead   come/go-be

  leave-be away  begin-be on

  join-be + 名词/介词短语

  (join the Party = be a Party member/ be in the Party)

  试比较:

  他回来三天了。

  He has come back for three days. (wrong)

  He has been back for three days. (right)

  她奶奶去世五年了。

  Her grandma has died for five years. (wrong)

  Her grandma has been dead for five years. (right)

  3. 反复性用法,表示过去到现在这段时间内反复发生的动作。

  我本周就到过这座城市两次。

  I have been to the city twice this week.

  我一直在想她最近怎样拿到的钱。

  I have often wondered where she gets her money all these days.

  (二)现在完成时的构成

  现在完成时由"助动词have/has+动词的过去分词"构成 。除主语是第三人称用has外,其它人称的主语都用have。

  1. 肯定句结构:主语+助动词have/has+动词的过去分词+其它。

  例如:

  She has finished her homework.

  她已做完作业了。

  We have cleaned our classroom.

  我们已经打扫完教室了。

  2. 否定句结构:主语+助动词have/has + not + 动词的过去分词+其它。

  现在完成时的否定句,只需直接在助动词have /has 后面加上not构成。have not 与has not 可分别缩写为haven't与hasn't。肯定句中有already时,一般要该为yet。

  例如:

  They haven't spoken to a foreigner.

  他们还没有与外国人说过话。

  Miss Gao hasn't come back yet。

  高老师还没有回来。

  3. 一般疑问句结构:助动词Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词+其它?

  现在完成时的一般疑问句直接把have/has提到主语之前构成,同时也要把句中的already该为yet。肯定的简略回答为: "Yes,主语+have/has". 有时也可用"Yes, already".否定的简略回答为"No,主语+haven't/hasn't ."有时也可用 "No, not yet./ No, never./ Not yet. "等。

  例如

  1. -Have you returned the book? 你把那本书还了吗?

  -Yes, I have. 是的,我还了。

  2. -Have you found your lost bike yet? 你找到你丢失的自行车了吗?

  -No, not yet. 还没有。

  (三)一般过去时与现在完成时用法比较

  1. 过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。

  2. 现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know;过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。

  3. 过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

  一般过去时的时间状语:

  yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语

  4. 现在完成时的时间状语:

  for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now,

  in past years, always

  5. 现在完成时不能与表示过去的时间状语连用。

  一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,也可以表示过去习惯性的动作,不涉及与现在的关系,它常与表示过去的具体时间状语连用,如:yesterday, last year, in 1998, three days ago 等。现在完成时强调过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,以及过去已经开始并延续到现在的动作,与现在有着密切的关系,因而不能与表示过去的时间状语连用。

  6. 举例:

  I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了。)

  I have seen this film.  (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

  Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了。)

  Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子,可能为不公平竞争。)

  She has returned from Paris. ( 她已从巴黎回来了。)

  She returned yesterday. (她是昨天回来了。)

  He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续)

  He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续)

  He joined the League three years ago. (三年前入团,joined为短暂行为。)

  I have finished my homework now.

  -Will somebody go and get Dr. White?

  -He's already been sent for.

  句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

  (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

  (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

  二、过去进行时

  (一) 概念和形式:

  过去进行时表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间内进行或发生的动作。其形式为was /were + V-ing。常与表示过去的时间状语连用,如:last night, last Saturday等;或者与when, while, as引导的过去时间状语连用。

  例如:

  We were watching TV from seven to nine last night.

  昨天晚上七点到九点的时候我们在看电视。

  What was he researching all day last Sunday?

  上周日他一整天都在研究什么?

  (二)具体用法:

  1) 表示过去某一时刻或过去某段时间内正在进行的动作,一般要有表示过去时间的状语。

  例如:

  At that time she was working in Oxford.

  那时,她正在牛津大学工作。

  It was raining at 6 o'clock this morning.

  今天早晨六点钟天正下着雨。

  What were you doing when I phoned you last night?

  昨晚我给你打电话时你在干什么?

  2) 在含有时间状语从句的复合句中,延续性动词用过去进行时,非延续性动词用一般过去时。

  例如:

  They were watching TV when I entered the room.

  我进入房间时,他们正在看电视。

  若主句和从句的动词均为延续性动词,则可以两边都可以采用过去进行时。

  例如:

  The children were playing with their toys while I was eating my dinner.

  我吃饭的时候,孩子们在玩他们的玩具。

  3) 可用来表示由过去某时持续到另一时间的过去动作。

  例如:

  He was studying in Cambridge between 1999 and 2001.

  在1999年和2001年那段时间,他在剑桥学习。

  From January to March I was traveling in Egypt.

  从一月份到三月份期间,我在埃及旅游。

  这种时间状语亦可同一般过去时连用,如:

  例如:

  He worked from morning till night yesterday.

  昨天他从早到晚地工作。

  4) 表示故事发生的背景。

  It was a sunny morning. Some people were sitting on the riverbank.

  Some were walking with their dogs. Several boys were playing football nearby...

  一个阳光明媚的清晨。河堤上坐着几个人。有的人在溜狗。不远处有几个男童在踢足球...

  5)与某些动词连用时,代替过去将来时。这类动词有 come来, go去, leave离开, start开始, stay逗留 等。主语必须是人。

  例如:

  He telephoned me, saying that his aunt was coming to see me soon.

  他打电话给我,说他姨妈很快就要看我了。

  注意:

  (一)有一些动词一般不用过去进行时:如agree, be, believe, belong, care, forget, hate, have(拥有), hear, know, like, love, mean, mind, notice, own, remember, seem, suppose, understand, want, wish等。例如:

  误:I was knowing the answer.

  正:I knew the answer. 我知道答案。

  误:I wasn't understanding him.

  正:I didn't understand him. 我不明白他的意思。

  (二)过去进行时与一般过去时的区别。

  A. 进行时表某一行为的"片断"一般时表示行为的"整体"和存在的状态。

  I was reading the book at that time.  (未读完,"读"的片段)

  I read the book yesterday.  (已读完,表整个"读")

  B. 一般持续时间状语多与进行时连用

  It was raining all night.

  (优先用was raining ,rained 为持续动词,故也可使用)

  He was writing a letter the whole of afternoon.

  (短暂动词与持续时间连用,表反复,连续发生,不可用一般过去时)

  C. while 时间状语从句中用短暂动词时只能用进行时。

  例如:He broke a chair while he was jumping up and down.

  D. While 所在主从句动作大致持续相等时主从句一般都用进行时,但若是持续动词可都用一般过去时,

  两个动作一长一短时短的用一般时,长的用进行时。

  I was cooking the dinner while he was playing the piano.(平行)

  I cooked the dinner while he played the piano.

  I saw him while I was walking to the station.

  三、巩固练习

  1. --- Mum, may I go out and play basketball?

  --- ______you______ your homework yet?

  A. Do; finish   B. Are; finishing    C. Did; finish   D. Have; finished

  2. --- ______ you ______anywhere before?

  --- Yes, but I can't remember where I______

  A. Did; surf; surfed      B. Have; surfed; surfed

  C. Did; surf; have surfed    D. Have; surfed; have surfed

  3. His brother has been to Stone Forest twice ______ he came to Yunnan.

  A. after    B. before     C. since    D. for

  4. Tom ______ the CD player for two weeks.

  A. has lent    B. has borrowed   C. has bought   D. has had

  5. I ______ a letter from him since he left.

  A. didn't receive   B. haven't got   C. didn't have   D. haven't heard

  6. --- Have you ever ______ Lintong to see the Terra Cotta Warriors?

  --- Yes, I have.

  A. went to    B. gone to    C. been in    D. been to

  7. I won't go to the concert because I ____my ticket.

  A. lost     B. don't lose   C. have lost    D. is coming

  8. --- Have you ever __________ the Great Wall?

  --- Yes, twice.

  A. been    B. been to    C. went to    D. gone to

  9. When Henry arrived at the bus stop, the bus ______ for two hours.

  A. has left    B. had left   C. has been away   D. had been away

  10. I ______ the League for five years so far.

  A. joined    B. have joined    C. have been in   D. join

  11. How long ________ Mr. Smith ________?

  A. did; die   B. was; dead    C. was; dying    D. has; been dead

  12. When I ______ in Beijing, it was raining hard.

  A. got     B. reached    C. arrived    D. was

  13. Tom ______ the car for two months.

  A. has had    B. bought    C. has bought    D. had got

  14. --- How long have you ___ the book?

  --- For a week.

  A. borrowed     B. lent    C. bought     D. kept

  15. Hurry up! The play  _ _  _  for ten minutes.

  A. has begun     B. has begun     C. has been on     D. began

  16. Miss Wu has taught in the school_____.

  A. since ten years    B. ten years ago    C. for ten years ago   D. for ten years

  17. David _____ China twice.

  A. has been in      B. has been to     C. have gone      D. has gone to

  18. He has never visited the Great Wall, _____?

  A. hasn't he   B. has he      C. doesn't he       D. doesn't he

  19.Mother ____me a new coat yesterday. I _______ it on. It fits me well.

  A. had made…have tried         B. made…have tried

  C. has made…tried            D. made…tried

  20 "He ____to draw horses already". When _____ he ?"

  " Last year "

  A. learned…has   B. learned…did   C. has learned…has   D. has learned…did

  21. My brother ___ while he ___ his bicycle and hurt himself.

  A. fell, was riding    B. fell, were riding

  C. had fallen, rode    D. had fallen, was riding

  22. Tom ___ into the house when no one ___.

  A. slipped, was looking       B. had slipped, looked

  C. slipped, had looked       D. was slipping, looked

  23.The last time I __ Jane she ___ cotton in the fields.

  A. had seen, was picking    B. saw, picked

  C. had seen, picked       D. saw, was picking

  24.I don't think Jim saw me; he ___ into space.

  A. just stared   B. was just staring    C. has just stared    D. had just stared

  25.I first met Lisa three years ago. She ___ at a radio shop at the time.

  A. has worked   B. was working   C. had been working   D. had worked

  26.---Hey, look where you are going! ---Oh, I'm terribly sorry.________.

  A. I'm not noticing    B. I wasn't noticing

  C. I haven't noticed    D. I don't notice

  27. The reporter said that the UFO ___ east to west when he saw it.

  A. was traveling   B. traveled   C. had been traveling   D. was to travel

  28. I ___ my breakfast when the morning post came.

  A. was speaking   B. spoke   C. had been speaking   D. had spoken

  29. --- "What's the matter, Ali? You look sad."

  --- "Oh, nothing much. As a matter of fact, I ___ of my friends back home."

  A. just thought       B. have just been thinking

  C. was just thinking     D. have just thought

  参考答案:

  1-5:DBCDB     6-10: DCBCC    11-15:DCADC

  16-20:BBBBD    21-25:AADBB    26-29:BADAC
 

 

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2012年无锡市辅仁中学英语期末考试卷及答案

苏教版2012-2013学年八年级英语第一次月考试题

苏教版八年级英语第一学期期末试卷附答案(三)

 

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