来源：无锡中考网整理 2013-03-02 18:04:18
1. 表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果，重点强调对现在造成的结果或影响。此种用法中的动词一般为终止性动词（也称非延续性动词），常与just, ever, never, yet, already, before等副词连用。
I have already seen the film.
She has just closed the door.
Have you seen the film already?
just的意思是"刚刚"，表示动作刚刚完成，用于现在完成时，位于助动词have/has之后。 要注意与just now的区别：just now的意思是"刚才"，用于一般过去时。
The train has just left here.
The train left here just now.
3) ever 的意思是"曾经"，多用于疑问句中，一般位于过去分词之前。
Have you ever seen him?
I have never heard of him.
I haven't eaten Sichuan food before.
此用法中的动词必须是延续性动词，如live, study, work, be, wait, know, stay等。for为介词，后面要接"一段时间"。since用作介词时，后面接"时间点"； since用作连词时，后面接"从句"（从句谓语动词用一般过去时）。
I have known Jim for two years.
They have lived there since1995.
Uncle Wang has worked in the factory since he came here in 1998.
延续性动词可以和表示一段时间的状语连用。终止性动词所表示的是短暂的动作，如borrow, lend, buy, come, go, put, take, open, leave, give, die, finish, become等，不能和表示一段时间的状语连用，一般要改为能够表示延续状态的词或短语。如：
die-be dead come/go－be
leave－be away begin－be on
join－be + 名词/介词短语
（join the Party = be a Party member/ be in the Party）
He has come back for three days. (wrong)
He has been back for three days. (right)
Her grandma has died for five years. (wrong)
Her grandma has been dead for five years. (right)
I have been to the city twice this week.
I have often wondered where she gets her money all these days.
She has finished her homework.
We have cleaned our classroom.
2. 否定句结构：主语+助动词have/has + not + 动词的过去分词+其它。
现在完成时的否定句，只需直接在助动词have /has 后面加上not构成。have not 与has not 可分别缩写为haven't与hasn't。肯定句中有already时，一般要该为yet。
They haven't spoken to a foreigner.
Miss Gao hasn't come back yet。
现在完成时的一般疑问句直接把have/has提到主语之前构成，同时也要把句中的already该为yet。肯定的简略回答为： "Yes,主语+have/has". 有时也可用"Yes, already".否定的简略回答为"No,主语+haven't/hasn't ."有时也可用 "No, not yet./ No, never./ Not yet. "等。
1. -Have you returned the book? 你把那本书还了吗？
-Yes, I have. 是的，我还了。
2. -Have you found your lost bike yet? 你找到你丢失的自行车了吗？
-No, not yet. 还没有。
2. 现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态，动词一般是延续性的，如live, teach, learn, work, study, know；过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。
yesterday, last week，…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语
for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now,
in past years, always
一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态，也可以表示过去习惯性的动作，不涉及与现在的关系，它常与表示过去的具体时间状语连用，如：yesterday, last year, in 1998, three days ago 等。现在完成时强调过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果，以及过去已经开始并延续到现在的动作，与现在有着密切的关系，因而不能与表示过去的时间状语连用。
I saw this film yesterday. （强调看的动作发生过了。）
I have seen this film. （强调对现在的影响，电影的内容已经知道了。）
Why did you get up so early? （强调起床的动作已发生过了。）
Who hasn't handed in his paper? （强调有卷子，可能为不公平竞争。）
She has returned from Paris. ( 她已从巴黎回来了。)
She returned yesterday. （她是昨天回来了。）
He has been in the League for three years. （在团内的状态可延续）
He has been a League member for three years. （是团员的状态可持续）
He joined the League three years ago. （三年前入团，joined为短暂行为。）
I have finished my homework now.
-Will somebody go and get Dr. White?
-He's already been sent for.
句子中如有过去时的时间副词（如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960）时，不能使用现在完成时，要用过去时。
（错）Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.
（对）Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.
过去进行时表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间内进行或发生的动作。其形式为was /were + V-ing。常与表示过去的时间状语连用，如：last night, last Saturday等；或者与when, while, as引导的过去时间状语连用。
We were watching TV from seven to nine last night.
What was he researching all day last Sunday?
At that time she was working in Oxford.
It was raining at 6 o'clock this morning.
What were you doing when I phoned you last night?
They were watching TV when I entered the room.
The children were playing with their toys while I was eating my dinner.
He was studying in Cambridge between 1999 and 2001.
From January to March I was traveling in Egypt.
He worked from morning till night yesterday.
It was a sunny morning. Some people were sitting on the riverbank.
Some were walking with their dogs. Several boys were playing football nearby...
5）与某些动词连用时，代替过去将来时。这类动词有 come来, go去, leave离开, start开始, stay逗留 等。主语必须是人。
He telephoned me, saying that his aunt was coming to see me soon.
（一）有一些动词一般不用过去进行时：如agree, be, believe, belong, care, forget, hate, have(拥有), hear, know, like, love, mean, mind, notice, own, remember, seem, suppose, understand, want, wish等。例如：
误：I was knowing the answer.
正：I knew the answer. 我知道答案。
误：I wasn't understanding him.
正：I didn't understand him. 我不明白他的意思。
I was reading the book at that time. (未读完，"读"的片段)
I read the book yesterday. (已读完，表整个"读")
It was raining all night.
(优先用was raining ,rained 为持续动词，故也可使用)
He was writing a letter the whole of afternoon.
C. while 时间状语从句中用短暂动词时只能用进行时。
例如：He broke a chair while he was jumping up and down.
D. While 所在主从句动作大致持续相等时主从句一般都用进行时，但若是持续动词可都用一般过去时，
I was cooking the dinner while he was playing the piano.(平行)
I cooked the dinner while he played the piano.
I saw him while I was walking to the station.
1. --- Mum, may I go out and play basketball?
--- ______you______ your homework yet?
A. Do; finish B. Are; finishing C. Did; finish D. Have; finished
2. --- ______ you ______anywhere before?
--- Yes, but I can't remember where I______
A. Did; surf; surfed B. Have; surfed; surfed
C. Did; surf; have surfed D. Have; surfed; have surfed
3. His brother has been to Stone Forest twice ______ he came to Yunnan.
A. after B. before C. since D. for
4. Tom ______ the CD player for two weeks.
A. has lent B. has borrowed C. has bought D. has had
5. I ______ a letter from him since he left.
A. didn't receive B. haven't got C. didn't have D. haven't heard
6. --- Have you ever ______ Lintong to see the Terra Cotta Warriors?
--- Yes, I have.
A. went to B. gone to C. been in D. been to
7. I won't go to the concert because I ____my ticket.
A. lost B. don't lose C. have lost D. is coming
8. --- Have you ever __________ the Great Wall?
--- Yes, twice.
A. been B. been to C. went to D. gone to
9. When Henry arrived at the bus stop, the bus ______ for two hours.
A. has left B. had left C. has been away D. had been away
10. I ______ the League for five years so far.
A. joined B. have joined C. have been in D. join
11. How long ________ Mr. Smith ________?
A. did; die B. was; dead C. was; dying D. has; been dead
12. When I ______ in Beijing, it was raining hard.
A. got B. reached C. arrived D. was
13. Tom ______ the car for two months.
A. has had B. bought C. has bought D. had got
14. --- How long have you ___ the book?
--- For a week.
A. borrowed B. lent C. bought D. kept
15. Hurry up! The play _ _ _ for ten minutes.
A. has begun B. has begun C. has been on D. began
16. Miss Wu has taught in the school_____.
A. since ten years B. ten years ago C. for ten years ago D. for ten years
17. David _____ China twice.
A. has been in B. has been to C. have gone D. has gone to
18. He has never visited the Great Wall, _____?
A. hasn't he B. has he C. doesn't he D. doesn't he
19.Mother ____me a new coat yesterday. I _______ it on. It fits me well.
A. had made…have tried B. made…have tried
C. has made…tried D. made…tried
20 "He ____to draw horses already". When _____ he ?"
" Last year "
A. learned…has B. learned…did C. has learned…has D. has learned…did
21. My brother ___ while he ___ his bicycle and hurt himself.
A. fell, was riding B. fell, were riding
C. had fallen, rode D. had fallen, was riding
22. Tom ___ into the house when no one ___.
A. slipped, was looking B. had slipped, looked
C. slipped, had looked D. was slipping, looked
23.The last time I __ Jane she ___ cotton in the fields.
A. had seen, was picking B. saw, picked
C. had seen, picked D. saw, was picking
24.I don't think Jim saw me; he ___ into space.
A. just stared B. was just staring C. has just stared D. had just stared
25.I first met Lisa three years ago. She ___ at a radio shop at the time.
A. has worked B. was working C. had been working D. had worked
26.---Hey, look where you are going! ---Oh, I'm terribly sorry.________.
A. I'm not noticing B. I wasn't noticing
C. I haven't noticed D. I don't notice
27. The reporter said that the UFO ___ east to west when he saw it.
A. was traveling B. traveled C. had been traveling D. was to travel
28. I ___ my breakfast when the morning post came.
A. was speaking B. spoke C. had been speaking D. had spoken
29. --- "What's the matter, Ali? You look sad."
--- "Oh, nothing much. As a matter of fact, I ___ of my friends back home."
A. just thought B. have just been thinking
C. was just thinking D. have just thought
1-5：DBCDB 6-10： DCBCC 11-15：DCADC
16-20：BBBBD 21-25：AADBB 26-29：BADAC