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八年级英语期末综合复习四 重点语法

来源:无锡中考网整理        2013-03-02 18:02:47

标签:八年级英语 期末考试说两句

1.一般过去时

  表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内所发生的动作或情况,通常一般过去式带有表示动作时间状语的词,词组或从句,如 yesterday, the day before last, last week, two days ago 等,上下文清楚时可以不带时间状语。

  I worked in that factory last year.去年我在那一家工厂工作。

  I went to the Tian Long Mountain yesterday.昨天我们去了天龙山。

  2.现在进行时

  表示说话者说话时正在发生或者进行的动作, 它注重现在正在进行的动作,而不管动作从什么时间开始,到什么时间结束。

  What are you doing now?你在干什么呢?

  I am looking for my key.我在找我的钥匙。

  The workers are building a big library.工人们正在建一座大型图书馆。

  现在进行时中有些动词表示即将发生的动作,一般指在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作。如:come, go, leave, start, arrive, be等。并常与表示将来时间的状语连用。例如:

  They are going to Shanghai on Friday. 他们星期五去上海。

  John is coming here next week and will stay here until May.

  约翰下星期来,并将在此逗留到五月。

  What are you doing next Saturday? 你下星期六干什么事?

  I am seeing him tomorrow. 我明天去看望他。

  I am going for a walk. Are you coming with me? Yes, I am just coming. Wait a bit.

  我去散步,你和我去吗?好,我就来,稍等一下。

  3.表示频率的副词和短语

  always, sometimes, often, never, once a week, twice a week, about twice a week, three time a week, every day, nearly every day

  4.一般现在时

  一般现在时可以用于以下几种情况:

  ①表示人或事物动作、状态,如:

  They usually watch TV on Sundays.他们通常在星期天看电视。

  She gets up at six o'clock.她在六点起床。

  ②表示人或事物现在的状态,如

  He is twelve.他十二岁。She is at home.她在家。

  Her car is under the tree.她的车在树下。

  ③表示经常的或习惯性的动作,如:

  I go to school at 7:30 every day.每天七点半我上学。

  ④表示主语具备的性格和能力等,如:

  David can speak English and Spanish.戴维会说英语和西班牙语。

  She likes apples.她喜欢苹果。

  ⑤表示普遍存在或某种客观事实。如:

  March comes after February.二月之后三月来到了。

  The sun is bigger than the moon.太阳比月亮大。

  5.be going to结构

  表示将要发生的动作和将来的计划。

  What are you going to do next Sunday?

  下星期天你打算干什么?

  They're going to meet outside the school gate.

  他们打算在校门口见面。

  We're not going to have any classes next week.

  下个星期我们不上课。

  I'm going to be a teacher.

  He's going to join a conversation club.

  6.一般将来时

  一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或反常发生的动作,常与表示将来的时间状语连用。如:in a few days, tomorrow, next week, next year等。一般将来时由"助动词will+动词原形"构成。在口语中,will在名词或代词后常简缩为'll, will not常简缩为won't。在疑问句中,主语为第一人称(I和we)时,常用助动词shall。例如:

  I will go to my hometown next week.下个星期我将要去我老家。

  We will come to see you every Sunday.每个星期天我们将来看你。

  【注意】①在表示"带意愿色彩的将来"时,常用will。例如:

  I'll give you a hand. 我愿意帮你。

  ②在问对方是否愿意,或表示客气的邀请或命令时,常用will。例如:

  Will you go to the office with me? 你愿意和我一起去办公室吗?

  Will you please clean the blackboard? 你能擦一下黑板吗?

  ③在表示建议或征求对方意见时,可用shall,例如:

  Shall we go home now? 我们能现在回家吗?

  Shall I put my handbag here? 我能把我的包放在这里吗?

  be going to表示将要发生的事或打算、计划、决定要做的事情。例如:

  肯定句:

  They're going to meet outside the school gate.

  I'm going to finish high school in two years.

  After I graduate from high school, I'm going to go to college for four years.

  I'm going to study languages because after college I'm going to work as a language teacher.

  While at college, I'm also going to take a computer course because I'm going to use computers in my work.

  否定句:

  We're not going to have any classes next week.

  I'm not going play lots of sports and keep fit.

  I'm not going to save up my money next month.

  I'm not going to visit Egypt next week.

  I'm not going to ride a camel to Beijing.

  I'm not going to take lots of photos for you.

  I'm not going to concentrate on this job.

  疑问句:

  What are you going to do next Sunday?

  Where are you going to study?

  Are you going to live at home?

  What are you going to have for lunch?

  Are you going to visit your grandparents?

  Is he going to join a conversation club?

  7.形容词的比较级:

  形容词的比较级用于两个人或事物的比较,其结构形式如下:

  主语+谓语(系动词)+ 形容词比较级+than+ 对比成分。 也就是, 含有形容词比较级的主句+than+从句。注意从句常常省去意义上和主句相同的部分, 而只剩下对比的成分。如:

  Our teacher is taller than we are.我们老师的个子比我们的高。

  It is warmer today than it was yesterday.今天的天气比昨天暖和。

  This picture is more beautiful than that one.这张照片比那张照片漂亮。

  This meeting is less important than that one.这次会议不如那次会议重要。

  The sun is much bigger than the moon.太阳比月亮大得多。

  8.used to的用法

  used to"过去经常,以前常常"。表示过去经常干某事(但现在已不是如此)。例如:

  I used to draw pictures. I liked that. But I am too busy to do that.

  我以前总画画,我喜欢,但我现在太忙了不画画了。

  We used to grow beautiful flowers is the garden.我们过去常在花园里种美丽的鲜花。

  There used to be many trees but now you see. The trees have all been cut down.

  原来这里有好多树,但现在你看,树都被砍光了。

  used to的否定式和疑问式有两种构成法:

  1)借助did. 如:

  She didn't use(d) to do it, did she?她以前不做那个,是不是?

  Did you use to play the piano?你以前是不是弹钢琴?

  2)不用did, 如:

  You usedn't to make that kind of mistakes. But why now?

  你过去不犯那样的错误,可现在为什么犯?

  Used you to make up stories out of your own head? 你以前是不是自已编故事?

  9.不定代词的用法

  不定代词大多数通常在句中作主语、宾语、表语、或定语。例如:

  Nobody saw the problem at first.(主语)

  Can they do anything to save the Aral Sea?(宾语)

  There is nothing but salt and sand.(表语)

  Have you any novels? 你有小说书吗?(定语)

  10."How+形容词"的特殊疑问句

  How long is the Nile River?

  How high is the Great Pyramid?

  How deep is the Grand Canyon?

  How far is Beijing from Shanghai?

  11.过去进行时

  ①过去进行时用于表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行或继续进行的动作。过去进行时经常与过去时搭配使用,过去进行时作过去时的时间背景。例如:

  This time yesterday, we were having an English lesson. There was a slight earthquake.

  昨天这个时候,我们正上英语课,这时发生了轻微地震。

  A year ago we were living in Shanghai. My mother fell ill and passed away.

  一年前我们住在上海。我的母亲病了并在那里去世。

  The teacher was giving us a lesson when Tom walked into the room.

  当汤姆走进教室时,老师在给我们上课。

  While we were having supper, all the lights went out.我们正吃饭的时候,灯熄灭了。

  He was reading while she was setting the table.她放桌子时,他在读书。(互为时间背景)

  It was getting dark. The wind was rising.天渐渐黑下来了。风势增强了。(互为背景)

  ②过去进行时表示过去频繁发生的习惯性动作,常与always, continually, frequently等词连用。例如:

  The old man was always mislaying his keys.这位老人总是忘记把钥匙放在什么地方了。

  He was continually asking questions.他老是问问题,没个完。

  The two brothers were frequently quarrelling.这两个兄弟经常吵架。

  12.情态动词could

  could表示说话人能,可以,同意,准许,以及客观条件许可,could是can 的过去式。

  He could play the violin when he was seven.当他七岁时,就会拉小提琴。

  Could they speak French? 他们会说法语吗?

  Yes, they could. /No, they couldn't.是的,他们会。/不,他们不会。

  He could help us at all.他完全可以帮助我们。

  Could you help me, please? 请问,你能帮助我吗?

  13.be动词+形容词

  be动词+形容词:He is extremely patient.

  英语常见系动词有:be, look, become, get, seem, turn, grow, appear, taste, feel, smell等,系动词一般后面跟形容词或名词作表语。例如:

  The lesson was interesting.那一课很有趣。

  He looks ill.他看起来病了。

  The soup tastes delicious.汤的味道很美。

  She seems very quiet. 她看起来很安静。

  Mike is my younger brother.迈克是我弟弟。

  Jim became a doctor.吉姆当上大夫了。

  14.句型too…to…和not…enough…的区别

  too…to…"太……以至不(能)"。例如:

  The girl is too short to reach the book on the top of the shelf.

  那个女孩太矮,她够不着放在书架顶上的书。

  It's too cold for children to play ourselves.天气太冷,孩子们不能在外面玩。

  句型too…to…=not…enough to…。例如:

  She's not tall enough to reach the cookies.她要拿到那个甜饼还不够高。

  =She's too short to reach the cookies.

  15.并列句

  连词but, on the other hand, while等连接两个并列的句子,表示"转折"关系,表示对比或相反的情况。例如:

  Eric is a good friend, but he worries all the time.

  艾力克是一个好朋友,但是他总是心事重重。

  She is hardworking, but her sister is very lazy.

  她很用功,但她妹妹却很懒。

  Eric is very hardworking and patient. Danny, on the other hand, is very lazy and impatient. 艾力克是个非常用功,富有耐心的人。而丹尼却非常懒,没有耐心。

  Danny forgets things. Eric, on the other hand, always remembers to turn off the lights.

  丹尼易忘记事情。而艾力克总是记得关灯。

  I have been to Beijing many times but my parents have never been there.

  我去过北京多次,但我父母亲从没去过。

  I drink black coffee while he prefers it with cream.

  我爱喝清咖啡而他喜欢加奶油的。

  English is understood all over the world while Turkish is spoken by only a few people outside Turkey itself.英语世界通行,但土耳其语离开本国就很少有人说人。

 

编辑推荐:

苏教版八年级英语第一学期期末试卷附答案

2012年无锡市辅仁中学英语期末考试卷及答案

苏教版2012-2013学年八年级英语第一次月考试题

苏教版八年级英语第一学期期末试卷附答案(三)

 

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